Hiccough is involuntary spasmodic contraction and lowering of the diaphragm, followed by sudden closure of the glottis which checks the inflow of the air and produce a short, sharp, inspiratory cough with a characteristic sound is known as hiccough. It may be benign and self-limited, but occasionally it is recurrent or persistent and a sign of serious underlying illness.
1. Causes of benign, self-limit hiccough:
- Gastric distention due to over eating, carbonated beverages & air swallowing.
- Sudden temperature changes.
- Alcohol ingestion.
- States of emotion ( excitement, stress, laughing).
2. Causes of recurrent or persistent hiccough:
- CNS causes- Neoplasms, infections, cerebrovascular disease, trauma.
- Metabolic causes- Renal failure (uremia), hypocapnia (hyperventilation).
- Irritation of the vagus or phrenic nerve:
3. Causes in the head & neck– Foreign body in the ears, goiter, neoplasms.
4. Causes in the thorax- Pneumonia, pneumothorax, empyema, neoplasms, myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aneurysm, oesophageal obstruction, reflux oesophagitis.
5. Causes in the abdomen– Subphrenic abscess, hepatomegaly, hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastric distention, gastric neoplasm, pancreatitis, or pancreatic malignancy.
6. Surgical causes– General anesthesia, post operative complications.
8. Idiopathic disorders.
- Taking of deep breath.
- Valsalva’s maneuver, sneezing, gasping.
- Holding breath for sometimes,
- Diversion of patients attention by conversations, fright, unpleasant or painful stimuli.
- Pulling the tongue forward.
Homeopathic Medicine: Should be according to the patient’s individuality.